Further Tests

Please select one of the following tests for further information:


Modern dairy industry is not focused on milk yield alone but also on qualitative traits such as milk content. In this respect, the composition of milk proteins is of considerable importance for further processing, in particular for the suitability of cheese production. The kappa-casein gene affects several quality traits of milk , such as clotting time, heat stability, taste and cheese yield. It became evident that the B variant is particularly advantageous for further processing.
The different gene variants can be determined by genetic testing.

Freemartin testing
Twin pregnancies in cattle with dizygotic twins of opposite sex often result in freemartinism of the female calve.
In the case of multiples, the foetal placentas are interconnected via vascular anastomoses which lead to an exposition to masculinzing factors and subsequent impaired development of the reproductive tract in the female twin. The virilisation can vary considerably. This hampers identification of infertile females by physical examination alone. However, molecular genetic testing enables clear diagnosis of the XX / XY chimerism in the infertile female.
Please note: Freemartin testing requires the submission of blood samples.
A major component of total milk protein is the so-called Beta-Casein. This protein is composed of 209 amino acids and occurs in different variants. Among these, the two most important are variant A1 and variant A2, differing in only a single amino acid at position 67 (A2: proline; A1: histidine). Probably, A2 is the original form in ruminants, since buffalo, zebus and goats only have Beta-Casein A2 milk. A1 on the other hand might be caused by a random mutation. Due to differences in digestion physiology, it has been suggested that milk intolerance in some cases could be related to the consumption of milk containing Beta-Casein A1 proteins. A2 protein is believed to show no negative effects on digestive wellbeing. In addition, consumption of A2-milk has been reported to show preventive effects against diabetes type 1, heart disease and psychosis. Two allele classes A1 (= A1, B, C) and A2 (= A2, A3, D, E and H) are differentiated in a simplified DNA test.
The persistent horns are an important trait of speciation for the family Bovidae with complex morphogenesis taking place briefly after birth. Nowadays, commercial dairy or beef herds are mainly confined to barns or fenced-in enclosures such as pastures or corrals. Under these conditions horns are not only of little value but can lead to considerable economic loss due to a higher risk of injuries and their possible consequences (infection, carcass deterioration etc.).Therefore, in modern cattle husbandry removing horns at an early age has become an accepted management practice. However, all used methods are debatable not least because of animal welfare implications. Therefore, breeding polled cattle constitutes a non-invasive option to replace the common practice by means of genetic selection. Recent results of our own research have lead to the development of a new genetic test which discriminates polled genotypes of celtic and frisian origin without consideration of pedigree information.
Please note: The test does not detect any genetic disposition which may result in Scurs and is validated for Bos Taurus, only.
Muscular hypertrophy (double muscling)
Muscular hypertrophy in cattle, also called "Double Muscling" is a characteristic with heterogeneous origin and form.
Based on scientific knowledge, at least nine different mutations in the bovine myostatin gene are currently distinguished, all of which lead to muscular hypertrophy in cattle. Not all known mutations are common in all breeds of cattle affected by muscle hypertrophy.
Six mutations declared as disruptive (C313Y, nt419, E226X, nt821, E291X and Q204x) lead to muscle hypertrophy, higher birth weight and, as a result, difficult births, but also to an improved tenderness of the meat. The so-called missense variants, on the other hand, increase the degree of musculature, but reduce external and intramuscular fat and have no influence on the birth weight.

GeneControl is currently offering the test for the disruptive variant nt821. This mutation, which is genetically fixed in the white-blue Belgians breed, also occurs in the Piedmontese, Angus and Limousin breeds and is a mostly undesirable trait here.

Sampling instructions
Bovine sample submission form